How do I direct myself to a private judge in California?

Courtrooms can be intimidating, particularly if you have never experienced one before. However, courtrooms can also be easy to navigate if you know what to expect inside the courtroom, what to expect from the judge, and if you know what is expected of you. Whether you are choosing to represent yourself in court or you are deciding to speak on your behalf in a courtroom, there are some general guidelines to which you should adhere.

The following seven steps offer good suggestions for anyone who will be speaking in front of a judge or on their own behalf in a courtroom.

How to Speak to a Judge Properly

Addressing a judge in the right way is important. They have worked hard in their careers to earn their title, and they have a certain expectation of behavior that should occur in their courtroom. They need a courtroom to run efficiently, so there are certain expectations for those in the courtroom.

  • Always address the judge properly. A judge has earned their title with years of hard work and dedication to their profession. When addressing a judge, regardless of gender, you should always refer to them as “Your Honor.” This is reserved only for judges, not the clerks of court or other courtroom personnel. If there is a situation where you are addressing other court members, follow the lead of attorneys or other case participants to understand how to address them properly.
  • Speak clearly and directly. Speaking to a judge needs to be clear and direct. You should use appropriate language, avoid non-verbal gestures, and speak in a clear voice. You should avoid the use of slang or sarcasm. Be sure that you never use curse words in the courtroom, either. Cursing at a judge or in the presence of one may land you in more trouble than you expect.
  • Never interrupt. When a judge is speaking, do not interrupt. Practice listening to understand rather than listening to respond. Merely waiting to respond may make interrupting the judge easier because of the tendency to assume what the judge is saying or is about to ask you.
  • Keep explanations short. While providing details in a courtroom is important, if you over-explain, you may include details that are unnecessary to understanding the facts of your case. Over-explaining can add confusion and complications to your case. The more you say, the more the other side will be able to poke holes in your case. You will want to plan out what you want to say and how you want to say it. You may want to introduce your case in as little as three sentences.
  • Make appropriate eye contact. When people avoid eye contact, it is often assumed that they are hiding something from others. Looking a judge in the eyes will show them respect and confidence in what you are presenting to them. If you are reading off your papers or looking at the floor, it can display uncertainty. If eye contact is not a part of your culture, you may want to consider informing others of that.
  • Avoid making a scene. Courtrooms are full of emotional moments. This is particularly true if things don’t go the way in which you expect. You may be tempted to react emotionally. If you have frustrations or even excitements and display them openly in court, you may hurt your case. You want to wait until the appropriate time and place. If you need to address something you don’t agree with during the trial, wait until the appropriate time and present your side of the information in a calculated and calm manner.
  • Stand when the judge enters the courtroom. When the judge, or the jury if your case involves one, enters the courtroom, it is important to show respect by standing. Do not sit until you are advised to do so by the judge. When a judge leaves the courtroom, you should do the same. If you are unsure, then you should follow the lead of others in the courtroom.


Q: How Do I Direct Myself to a Judge?

A: There are some basic rules of etiquette that you should adhere to when addressing a judge. Most importantly, you should speak clearly and at a volume that allows the judge to hear you easily. Understand when it is your turn to speak and when it is, address the judge as “Your Honor” regardless of the gender of the judge.

Q: What Is a Private Judge in California?

A: A private judge is one that is hired by both parties that are involved in a dispute. They are retired judges who are granted the same authority as a courtroom judge but are not restricted by the bounds of a courtroom proceeding. Their decisions are legally binding and can be appealed just as with any other decision by a judge.

Q: Can You Choose Your Own Judge?

A: If your claim will be heard in a courtroom, you are bound by whichever judge is assigned to you. However, if you are in a dispute and the other party agrees, you will be able to hire a private judge that can oversee the dispute. You and the other party must be in agreement over whom you hire, but this will allow you the flexibility of who presides over the case.

Q: Can You Represent Yourself in Court in California?

A: You always have the right to represent yourself in court. While there are pros to doing this, it is often ill-advised to do so. You should always consider allowing an attorney who has the knowledge and experience in a courtroom to represent your best interests so that your claim will reach the best possible outcome.

To Speak or Not to Speak

Whether you decide to speak on your own behalf in a courtroom or allow an attorney to speak on your behalf, you don’t need to be intimidated by a courtroom. Speaking and communicating with a judge is an important part of any legal proceeding. Before being a part of any legal proceeding, be sure that you build your confidence by reviewing these suggestions to best represent yourself. We also recommend speaking to an attorney before you decide to go at it alone. Contact the attorneys at McCunn Law today and let our team help advise you on your case before it goes to trial.